There are three types of diabetes.
1. Type 1 Diabetes, previously called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes, comprises of approximately 10% of all diabetes cases. In Type 1 Diabetes, the body either stops makes insulin or does not make adequate insulin because the immune system has attacked and destroyed the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This form of diabetes usually develops in children or young adults. Although the risk factors are not as clear for Type 1 Diabetes, autoimmune, genetic, and environmental factors are involved in its development.
2. Type 2 Diabetes, previously called non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or adult-onset diabetes, comprises of approximately 90% of all diabetes cases. In Type 2 Diabetes, the body usually begins with insulin resistance, which results in insufficient production of insulin for proper function. Insulin resistance is a condition that arises when fat, muscle, and liver cells do not use insulin to transport glucose into the body’s cells to use for energy. Therefore, the body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. Although the pancreas tries to make more insulin to satisfy the added demand, the pancreas eventually is unable to produce enough insulin when blood sugar levels increase, such as after meals. This form of diabetes tends to occur in adults over 40 years of age, people who are overweight, and individuals with a family history of diabetes. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, prior history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity.
3. Gestational Diabetes develops in a small percentage of pregnancies during the late stages. Gestational Diabetes is caused by lack of enough hormone insulin during pregnancy, which results in high blood glucose levels to ensure the baby gets enough nutrients. Although, Gestational Diabetes may lack noticeable symptoms, it can cause complications for the baby. Gestational Diabetes usually disappears after the baby is born. However, women who have had it are more likely to have it again in another pregnancy, or are at increased risk for later developing Type 2 Diabetes.